Friday, February 13, 2015

Questions on Eschatology

My daughter has written a thesis on eschatology for her persuasive speech this year. In the midst of her research she had a number of questions - here are a few and my answers.

1. When looking at the 1000 years in Revelation 20, it isn't literal so is it "prophetic" or something else?
The 1000 years is symbolic of a very extensive number. The factor 1000 has already been used in Scripture and in Revelation in this way. For example, Scripture notes that God owns the cattle on a 1000 hills. This doesn't mean that he doesn't own the cattle on the 1001 hill but that he owns all of them. Similarly, Revelation identifies 12x1000 from each tribe of Israel who are saved by God as a remnant within unbelieving Israel. This is again symbolic of a perfect number from each tribe - not that there were exactly 12000 from each tribe. (Rev 7:4ff).

2. Can you explain Revelation 20 about what it means by Satan being chained and being sealed away for awhile?
Yep, would you like me to? :) Assuming yes - this refers to the current age. Notice that the chaining of Satan is in a particular regard. He is chained that "he not deceive the nations any longer." In other words, the time of Satan's control of the nations (the old covenant era) has come to an end. Jesus has broken the power of Satan, the nations are now His, and He is in the process of bringing them into submission to His rule through the preaching of the Word and administration of the sacraments. Jesus clearly teaches this in Mark 3 when he is accused of casting out demons by the ruler of the demons. Jesus says, "How can Satan cast out Satan? If a kingdom is divided against itself, that kingdom cannot stand. And if a house is divided against itself, that house cannot stand. And if Satan has risen up against himself, and is divided, he cannot stand, but has an end." Note that Jesus essentially says - your accusation is absurd! But then he goes on to explain what he is doing: "No one can enter a strong man's house [Satan's house] and plunder his goods, unless he first binds the strong man. And then he will plunder his house." During his ministry Jesus was in the process of binding Satan so that he might plunder Satan's house - the nations of the earth. So that's what Jesus is doing now. He conquered Satan throughout His ministry (Lk 10:17-19) but definitively at the cross (Col 2:15). So Satan is now "bound." Remember the image in Pilgrim's Progress of the two lions on either side of Christian's path? So long as he kept to the path they could not harm him - for they were chained.

3. Does the 1000 years in revelation 20:4-6 mean that he reigns among us today?
Absolutely - Jesus reigns today. He is the Lord of all (Mt 28:18-20; Acts 2:29-36 especially 36; Rev 1:4-5; 11:15-19; 17:12-14;  19:11-16). When Satan is called the "lord of this world" it does not mean he is the lord of the earth but the lord of those forces that wage war against Jesus and His lawful rule. God is the King; Jesus is King; Satan is not.

4. Can you explain again what the iron and clay feet represent in Daniel 2? And what verses 41-44 mean?
The kingdom of iron and iron/clay is one kingdom - Rome. The mixture of iron and clay in the feet represents the inherent instability of Rome but also of all the kingdoms built on human power and might. These kingdoms are doomed to fail. So notice v. 41 - "Whereas you saw the feet and toes, partly of potter's clay and partly of iron, the kingdom shall be divided..." Which kingdom? The kingdom that Daniel has just mentioned - he connects the legs of iron with the mixed feet. They are one kingdom. This is confirmed by Daniel's later vision in chapter 7 - again there are four pagan kingdoms replaced by the kingdom of the Son of Man. There is no "extra" kingdom in there. Lion - Babylon; Bear - Persia; Leopard - Macedon; Monster - Rome; Son of Man - Jesus! The animal kingdoms are replaced by the human kingdom. Praise God!

5. What is the mountain/God's kingdom in Daniel, referring to? The kingdom of God in the Church or the heavenly kingdom or none of those?
The rock cut out without hands is the kingdom of God (2:44), the rule of God established through the life, death, and resurrection of our Lord Jesus. Jesus announced that the kingdom of God was at hand (Mk 1:15) - he came announcing that the time to fulfill Daniel's prophecy had arrived. The kingdom is not identical with the church. The kingdom of God is the rule of God through His Messiah Jesus. The kingdom, therefore, is more extensive than the Church. Because Jesus rules, because He has established His kingdom, there is a people of God on earth - the Church. The Church is one of the manifestations of Christ's rule but not to be equated with His rule. After all, there are other evidences of Christ's rule - the spread of peace, the establishment of civil justice, the protection of the poor and needy, liberty, etc. Christ's kingdom is more extensive than the church.

6. What do Revelation 20:7-10 mean?
They imply that near the end of Christ's triumphant rule there will be a brief rebellion by Satan and his hosts which will be overcome by Christ's return in glory.
You might listen to my sermon here for a description of Revelation 20. You can download the pdf notes for the sermon there as well.